Phi-TEC II // Adiabatic low phi-factor Reaction Safety Calorimetry
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Low phi-factor adiabatic calorimeter - Phi-TEC II


The Phi-TEC II is an adiabatic calorimeter with the capability of simulating the behaviour of a large-scale chemical reactor under conditions virtually identical to a large-scale plant, while using only 10-100mL of sample. This is due to the low phi-factor (see below) data obtained from the Phi-TEC II.

The system is completely computer controlled and features a range of high-pressure test cells, direct agitation stirring and pressure and temperature logging. Standard Pre-programmed Tests make runs quick and efficient and simple standard test cells keep consumable costs to a minimum.

It can also be used as a conventional "ARC-type" calorimeter with same test cells and all the same applications being covered fully.

The Phi-Factor

Obviously, when it comes to safety, getting the right answers is a must. A second point to consider on calorimeters is the Phi-Factor. In any reaction, a proportion of the energy released is absorbed by the test cell itself - this is measured by the Phi-Factor (or thermal inertia). In a test with a high phi-factor, a large amount of heat is lost to the cell and this effectively slows down the rate of pressure and temperature rise, as well as reducing the final temperature and pressure. In a low phi-factor test, which would behave like a large scale reactor, essentially all the energy of the reaction is retained in the solution, maximising it's final temperature and temperature, as well as the rates.

Again ecomonies of scale, play a role in how a system performs thermodynamically - in a large-scale chemical plant, whilst the vessel might be quite substantial, it actually has a much smaller mass as a percentage of the whole system (and hence low phi-factor), than an equivalent laboratory vessel.

Only a low-phi factor calorimeter such as the Phi-TEC II can deliver the accurate, scalable safety vital for transferring processes from the lab to pilot or plant scale.


TSu &amp Phi-TEC I -type tests can also be performed on the Phi-TEC II. Thus, while the main distinguishing feature is the low phi-factor operation, it is not limited to this and can double as a screening device and as a conventiona "ARC" type device.

Key data produced includes

  • Onset Temperatures for exotherms
  • Runaway data, suitable for Diers Relief Line Sizing
  • Determination of Venting behaviour (Gassy, tempered, hybrid)
  • Determination of Flow Regime (Two-phase or sinlge-phase)
  • Kinetic data (eg for TMR, or TNR calculations)


The Phi-TEC II finds most of its work evaluation worst-case scenarios such as...

  • Runaway reaction
  • Relief Sizing
  • Reaction Kinetics
  • Safe Storage
  • Safe Transportation

The low-phi factor of large systems has a huge impact on reaction rates and temperatures - the Phi-TEC II allows this to be mirrored, accurately on a laboratory scale system, without the uncertainty of reaction-modeling or the large expense and hazard of pilot-scale trials.